Development of a multivariate prediction model of intensive care unit transfer or death: A French prospective cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients

PLoS One. 2020 Oct 19;15(10):e0240711. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240711. eCollection 2020.


Prognostic factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients among European population are lacking. Our objective was to identify early prognostic factors upon admission to optimize the management of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a medical ward. This French single-center prospective cohort study evaluated 152 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, hospitalized in the Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology Department, at Pitié-Salpêtrière's Hospital, in Paris, France, a tertiary care university hospital. Predictive factors of intensive care unit (ICU) transfer or death at day 14 (D14), of being discharge alive and severe status at D14 (remaining with ventilation, or death) were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models; models' performances, including discrimination and calibration, were assessed (C-index, calibration curve, R2, Brier score). A validation was performed on an external sample of 132 patients hospitalized in a French hospital close to Paris, in Aulnay-sous-Bois, Île-de-France. The probability of ICU transfer or death was 32% (47/147) (95% CI 25-40). Older age (OR 2.61, 95% CI 0.96-7.10), poorer respiratory presentation (OR 4.04 per 1-point increment on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical scale, 95% CI 1.76-9.25), higher CRP-level (OR 1.63 per 100mg/L increment, 95% CI 0.98-2.71) and lower lymphocytes count (OR 0.36 per 1000/mm3 increment, 95% CI 0.13-0.99) were associated with an increased risk of ICU requirement or death. A 9-point ordinal scale scoring system defined low (score 0-2), moderate (score 3-5), and high (score 6-8) risk patients, with predicted respectively 2%, 25% and 81% risk of ICU transfer or death at D14. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a medical ward in France, a simplified scoring system at admission predicted the outcome at D14.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Betacoronavirus / genetics*
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / mortality
  • Coronavirus Infections / virology
  • Female
  • Forecasting / methods*
  • Hospital Mortality / trends*
  • Hospitalization*
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Paris / epidemiology
  • Patient Discharge
  • Patient Transfer / trends*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / mortality
  • Pneumonia, Viral / virology
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • SARS-CoV-2

Grant support

The author(s) received no specific funding for this work. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.