Background: Several reports prove interconnection between vitamin D (VD) deficiency and increased cardiovascular risk. Our aim was to investigate the effects of VD status on biomechanical and oxidative-nitrative (O-N) stress parameters of coronary arterioles in rats.
Methods: 4-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into a control group (11 animals) with optimal VD supply (300 IU/kgbw/day) and a VD-deficient group (11 animals, <5 IU/kg/day). After 8 weeks, coronary arteriole segments were prepared. Geometrical, elastic, and biomechanical characteristics were measured by in vitro arteriography. O-N stress markers were investigated by immunohistochemistry.
Results: Inner radius decreased; wall thickness and wall-thickness/lumen diameter ratio increased; tangential wall stress and elastic modulus were reduced in VD-deficient group. No difference could be found in wall-cross-sectional area, intima-media area %. While the elastic elements of the vessel wall decreased, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunostaining intensity showed no changes. Significant elevation was found in the lipid peroxidation marker of 4-hidroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), while other O-N stress markers staining intensity (poly(ADP)ribose, 3-nitrotyrosine) did not change.
Conclusions: Inward eutrophic remodeling has developed. The potential background of these impairments may involve the initial change in oxidative damage markers (HNE). These mechanisms can contribute to the increased incidence of the cardiovascular diseases in VD deficiency.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; male; oxidative damage; rat model; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency.