A missense mutation, S85C, in the MATR3 gene is a genetic cause for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It is unclear how the S85C mutation affects MATR3 function and contributes to disease. Here, we develop a mouse model that harbors the S85C mutation in the endogenous Matr3 locus using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. MATR3 S85C knock-in mice recapitulate behavioral and neuropathological features of early-stage ALS including motor impairment, muscle atrophy, neuromuscular junction defects, Purkinje cell degeneration and neuroinflammation in the cerebellum and spinal cord. Our neuropathology data reveals a loss of MATR3 S85C protein in the cell bodies of Purkinje cells and motor neurons, suggesting that a decrease in functional MATR3 levels or loss of MATR3 function contributes to neuronal defects. Our findings demonstrate that the MATR3 S85C mouse model mimics aspects of early-stage ALS and would be a promising tool for future basic and preclinical research.