Yolk Sac Tumors

In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan.


Yolk sac tumors (also known as primitive endodermal tumors or endodermal sinus tumors) are malignant primitive germ cell tumors. They are histologically similar to the mesenchyme of the primitive yolk sac.

Yolk sac tumor is a type of germ cell tumor. Germ cell tumors commonly arise in the gonads but sometimes can occur outside the gonads and are called extragonadal germ cell tumors. The most common testicular tumor in young children under the age of 3 is yolk sac tumor, and it is also known as infantile embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumors have a good prognosis in this age group.

Compared to pure type in infants and young children, yolk sac tumors in adults are often found in combination with other types of germ cell tumors (e.g., teratoma and embryonal carcinoma).

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