Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Emicizumab in Persons with Hemophilia A with Factor VIII Inhibitors: HAVEN 1 Study

Thromb Haemost. 2021 Mar;121(3):351-360. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1717114. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Abstract

Emicizumab, a bispecific monoclonal antibody, bridges activated factor IX (FIXa) and FX, replacing the function of missing FVIIIa to restore effective hemostasis in persons with hemophilia A (PwHA). Here we assess pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers in PwHA with FVIII inhibitors in the Phase III HAVEN 1 study (NCT02622321). Blood samples from 112 PwHA receiving 1.5 mg/kg once-weekly subcutaneous emicizumab were analyzed at central laboratories. Emicizumab concentrations for PK analysis were measured via validated immunoassay. PD effects were assessed using FVIII chromogenic activity assay containing human factors (Hyphen Biophen FVIII:C), and by FXIa-triggered thrombin generation (TG). Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), antigen levels of FIX and FX, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragment 1.2 (PF1.2) levels were determined. Emicizumab trough concentrations ≥ 50 µg/mL were maintained throughout the study. FVIII-like activity and TG (peak height) correlated with emicizumab concentrations and remained above 20 U/dL and 100 nM, respectively, with a weekly maintenance dose, theoretically converting persons with severe hemophilia A to a mild disease phenotype. aPTT was normalized at subtherapeutic concentrations of emicizumab. Plasma concentrations of target antigens FIX and FX were not significantly affected by emicizumab treatment; nor were fibrinogen, PT (international normalized ratio), D-dimer, or PF1.2. The PK profile of once-weekly emicizumab in HAVEN 1 provides sustained therapeutic plasma levels, consistent with population PK models. Both the PK profile and the PD and safety biomarkers are consistent with the established efficacy of emicizumab prophylaxis in PwHA with FVIII inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Bispecific / pharmacokinetics
  • Antibodies, Bispecific / pharmacology
  • Antibodies, Bispecific / therapeutic use*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / pharmacokinetics
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / pharmacology
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / therapeutic use*
  • Blood Coagulation / drug effects
  • Child
  • Factor VIII / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Hemophilia A / blood
  • Hemophilia A / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Antibodies, Bispecific
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • emicizumab
  • Factor VIII

Grant support

Funding This study was sponsored by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.