Background: Knowledge on normal progress and treatment of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) is limited. This study reviews outcome, clinical, pathological, and therapeutic factors affecting the prognosis of HSPN patients.
Methods: Forty-nine children with biopsy-confirmed HSPN diagnosed between September 2008 and 2018 were included. Demographics, clinical and laboratory data, treatment, and outcome were recorded at the time of biopsy, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and at last visit. Clinical outcome was graded according to Meadow's criteria.
Results: The median age at time of biopsy was 10.1 years (IQR:5.7) and female/male ratio 24/25. At presentation, 40.8% of patients had nonnephrotic proteinuria, 18.4% nephrotic syndrome (NS), 4.1% nephritic syndrome (NephrS), and 36.7% NephrS+NS. There were 11 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Biopsy specimens were classified according to International Study of Kidney Diseases in Children (ISKDC) and Oxford Classification MEST-C scoring systems. Forty-one patients received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, 37 patients steroids, and 35 patients other immunosuppressive medications. At last visit, 24 patients had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (CKD), three stage 2 CKD, and two had stage 5 CKD. Neither clinical parameters nor ISKDC biopsy grade or treatment modalities effected the final outcome. The Oxford classification showed significantly increased segmental glomerulosclerosis in patients with unfavorable outcome. Favorable outcome was associated with shorter time from kidney involvement to biopsy and start of treatment.
Conclusion: A large proportion of patients continued to show signs of CKD at last follow-up while only a small proportion developed stage 5 CKD.
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; HSPN; Immunoglobulin A vasculitis; Outcome; Pediatrics; Prognosis; Treatment.