Renin inhibitors versus angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for primary hypertension

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Oct 22;10:CD012569. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012569.pub2.

Abstract

Background: Renin inhibitors (RIs) reduce blood pressure more than placebo, with the magnitude of this effect thought to be similar to that for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. However, a drug's efficacy in lowering blood pressure cannot be considered as a definitive indicator of its effectiveness in reducing mortality and morbidity. The effectiveness and safety of RIs compared to ACE inhibitors in treating hypertension is unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the benefits and harms of renin inhibitors compared to ACE inhibitors in people with primary hypertension.

Search methods: The Cochrane Hypertension Group Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to August 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also contacted authors of relevant papers about further published and unpublished work. The searches had no language restrictions.

Selection criteria: We included randomized, active-controlled, double-blinded studies (RCTs) with at least four weeks follow-up in people with primary hypertension, which compared renin inhibitors with ACE inhibitors and reported morbidity, mortality, adverse events or blood pressure outcomes. We excluded people with proven secondary hypertension.

Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected the included trials, evaluated the risks of bias and entered the data for analysis.

Main results: We include 11 RCTs involving 13,627 participants, with a mean baseline age from 51.5 to 74.2 years. Follow-up duration ranged from four weeks to 36.6 months. There was no difference between RIs and ACE inhibitors for the outcomes: all-cause mortality: risk ratio (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.18; 5 RCTs, 5962 participants; low-certainty evidence; total myocardial infarction: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.22 to 3.39; 2 RCTs, 957 participants; very low-certainty evidence; adverse events: RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.03; 10 RTCs, 6007 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; serious adverse events: RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.64; 10 RTCs, 6007 participants; low-certainty evidence; and withdrawal due to adverse effects: RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.06; 10 RTCs, 6008 participants; low-certainty evidence. No data were available for total cardiovascular events, heart failure, stroke, end-stage renal disease or change in heart rate. Low-certainty evidence suggested that RIs reduced systolic blood pressure: mean difference (MD) -1.72, 95% CI -2.47 to -0.97; 9 RCTs, 5001 participants; and diastolic blood pressure: MD -1.18, 95% CI -1.65 to -0.72; 9 RCTs, 5001 participants, to a greater extent than ACE inhibitors, but we judged this to be more likely due to bias than a true effect. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of hypertension, we have low certainty that renin inhibitors (RI) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors do not differ for all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction. We have low to moderate certainty that they do not differ for adverse events. Small reductions in blood pressure with renin inhibitors compared to ACE inhibitors are of low certainty. More independent, large, long-term trials are needed to compare RIs with ACE inhibitors, particularly assessing morbidity and mortality outcomes, but also on blood pressure-lowering effect.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00368277 NCT01042392 NCT00853658 NCT00631917 NCT00219050 NCT00219089 NCT00219167 NCT00529451 NCT00923156 NCT01151410.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Amides / adverse effects
  • Amides / therapeutic use
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cause of Death
  • Female
  • Fumarates / adverse effects
  • Fumarates / therapeutic use
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Irbesartan / therapeutic use
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Lisinopril / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Patient Dropouts / statistics & numerical data
  • Ramipril / therapeutic use
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Renin / antagonists & inhibitors*

Substances

  • Amides
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Fumarates
  • aliskiren
  • Lisinopril
  • Renin
  • Irbesartan
  • Ramipril

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00368277
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01042392
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00853658
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00631917
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00219050
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00219089
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00219167
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00529451
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00923156
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01151410