The outer membrane and surface exposed proteins of four strains of the gastric Campylobacter-like organism Campylobacter pyloridis were identified by SDS-PAGE of Sarkosyl-insoluble membranous material and 125I-surface-labelled whole bacteria. Although constant outer membrane proteins (molecular mass 61, 54 and 31 kDa) were observed in these strains, several variable 125I-labelled surface proteins were detected. C. pyloridis does not appear to express a single surface-exposed major outer membrane protein like that of C. jejuni and C. coli. Putative flagella proteins were identified from isolated flagella and acid-extractable surface material and by immunoblotting with anti-flagella antibodies. Several major protein antigens were observed by immunoblotting with anti-C. pyloridis antisera. At least two of these antigens cross-reacted with anti-C. jejuni antiserum. This cross-reaction appears to be caused primarily by flagellar antigens. However, one major protein antigen (61 kDa) was not cross-reactive with C. jejuni and may, therefore, be useful in serological tests for the specific diagnosis of C. pyloridis infections.