The arabinogalactan and peptidoglycan of armadillo-grown Mycobacterium leprae were examined. Within the limits defined by the small amount of material available, the resemblance of these polymers to those of other mycobacteria was confirmed. The polymers were linked by a highly acid-labile bond and the arabinogalactan was itself acid-labile; free arabinose and a variety of oligosaccharides containing both arabinose and galactose, as well as polysaccharide and peptidoglycan, were released by dilute acid. The resonances from anomeric protons in the proton NMR spectrum of the arabinogalactan were similar to those from the arabinogalactan of M. tuberculosis. The composition and structure of the peptidoglycan resembled those of other mycobacteria. The only major difference was the specific replacement of L-alanine by glycine in the peptide of the peptidoglycan.