Fibromuscular dysplasia is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory vascular disease that involves primarily the renal and internal carotid arteries and less often the vertebral, iliac, subclavian, and visceral arteries. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, humoral, mechanical, and genetic factors as well as mural ischemia may play a role. The natural history is relatively benign, with progression occurring in only a minority of the patients. Typical clinical manifestations are renovascular hypertension, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, abdominal angina, or claudication of the legs or arms. In patients with symptoms, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has emerged as the treatment of choice in most involved vascular beds.