Circulating platelets roll along exposed collagen at vessel injury sites and respond with filipodia protrusion, shape change, and surface area expansion to facilitate platelet adhesion and plug formation. Various glycoproteins were considered to be both collagen responders and mediators of platelet adhesion, yet the signaling kinetics emanating from these receptors do not fully account for the rapid platelet cytoskeletal changes that occur in blood flow. We found the free N-terminal fragment of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR56 in human plasma and report that GPR56 is the platelet receptor that transduces signals from collagen and blood flow-induced shear force to activate G protein 13 signaling for platelet shape change. Gpr56 -/- mice have prolonged bleeding, defective platelet plug formation, and delayed thrombotic occlusion. Human and mouse blood perfusion studies demonstrated GPR56 and shear-force dependence of platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen. Our work places GPR56 as an initial collagen responder and shear-force transducer that is essential for platelet shape change during hemostasis.
Keywords: adhesion GPCR; collagen; hemostasis; platelets; signal transduction.
Copyright © 2020 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.