Background: Phosphoglucomutase-3 (PGM3) deficiency is a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) with hyperimmunoglobulin IgE, atopy, and a variable immunological phenotype; most reported patients display dysmorphic features. The aim of the study was to characterize the genotype and phenotype of individuals with newly identified compound heterozygous variants in the phosphate-binding domain of PGM3 in order to better understand phenotypic differences between these patients and published cases.
Methods: We analyzed PGM3 protein expression, PGM3 enzymatic activity, the presence of other gene variants within the N-glycosylation pathway, and the clinical and immunological manifestations of two affected siblings.
Results: Patients belonged to a non-consanguineous family, presenting with atopic dermatitis, elevated levels of IgE, and CD4+ lymphopenia (a more severe phenotype was observed in Patient 2), but lacked dysmorphic features or neurocognitive impairment. Compound heterozygous PGM3 variants were identified, located in the phosphate-binding domain of the enzyme. PGM3 expression was comparable to healthy donors, but L-PHA binding in naïve-CD4+ cells was decreased. Examination of exome sequence identified the presence of one additional candidate variant of unknown significance (VUS) in the N-glycosylation pathway in Patient 2: a variant predicted to have moderate-to-high impact in ALG12.
Conclusions: Our analysis revealed that L-PHA binding is reduced in naïve-CD4+ cells, which is consistent with decreased residual PGM3 enzymatic activity. Other gene variants in the N-glycosylation pathway may modify patient phenotypes in PGM3 deficiency. This study expands the clinical criteria for when PGM3 deficiency should be considered among individuals with hyper-IgE.
Keywords: PGM3 deficiency; dermatitis; glycosylation deficiency; hyper-IgE syndrome; inborn error of immunity.
© 2020 European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.