Minor Physical Anomalies in Bipolar Disorder

Compr Psychiatry. 2020 Nov;103:152206. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152206. Epub 2020 Sep 15.


Objective: High-arched palate is more frequent in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). Upto 40% of patients develop schizophrenia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome manifested with cleft lip and palate, which originate from the first pharyngeal arch in embryo. The auricle also originates from the dorsal ends of the first and second pharyngeal arches; hence, we aimed to determine the associations between auricular anomalies and BD.

Methods: We screened for 36 minor physical anomalies of the auricle in 146 patients with BD.

Results: 7 out of the of 36 assessed anomalies highly differed between healthy subjects and BD patients. A regression model including the differing anomalies predicted healthy subjects and BD-patients by 78.8% and 68.5%, respectively.

Conclusions: Assessing minor anomalies in psychiatric disorders may help to discover novel pathogenesis pathways and even new endophenotypes.

MeSH terms

  • Bipolar Disorder* / diagnosis
  • Bipolar Disorder* / epidemiology
  • Craniosynostoses*
  • Endophenotypes
  • Humans
  • Marfan Syndrome*
  • Schizophrenia*