A complete set of recombinant vaccinia viruses that express each of the influenza virus polypeptides has been constructed. PB1, PB2, PA, HA, NP, M1, and NS1 genes were derived from influenza virus A/PR/8/34, NA from influenza virus A/Cam/46, and M2 and NS2 genes from influenza virus A/Udorn/72. Cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesize influenza polypeptides that are precipitable with specific antisera and that have electrophoretic mobilities similar to the corresponding influenza virus polypeptides. Indirect immunofluorescence studies have shown that HA, NA, and MS2 proteins migrate to the cell surface; PB2, PB1, PA, NP, and NS1 proteins migrate to the cell nucleus; and M1 and NS2 are distributed throughout the cell, although NS2 accumulates preferentially in nuclei. These transport processes occurred independently of other influenza polypeptides and are therefore attributable to the intrinsic properties of the influenza polypeptides themselves.