Decision Tree-Based Classification for Planetary Gearboxes' Condition Monitoring with the Use of Vibration Data in Multidimensional Symptom Space

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Oct 22;20(21):5979. doi: 10.3390/s20215979.


Monitoring the condition of rotating machinery, especially planetary gearboxes, is a challenging problem. In most of the available approaches, diagnostic procedures are related to advanced signal pre-processing/feature extraction methods or advanced data (features) analysis by using artificial intelligence. In this paper, the second approach is explored, so an application of decision trees for the classification of spectral-based 15D vectors of diagnostic data is proposed. The novelty of this paper is that by a combination of spectral analysis and the application of decision trees to a set of spectral features, we are able to take advantage of the multidimensionality of diagnostic data and classify/recognize the gearbox condition almost faultlessly even in non-stationary operating conditions. The diagnostics of time-varying systems are a complicated issue due to time-varying probability densities estimated for features. Using multidimensional data instead of an aggregated 1D feature, it is possible to improve the efficiency of diagnostics. It can be underlined that in comparison to previous work related to the same data, where the aggregated 1D variable was used, the efficiency of the proposed approach is around 99% (ca. 19% better). We tested several algorithms: classification and regression trees with the Gini index and entropy, as well as the random tree. We compare the obtained results with the K-nearest neighbors classification algorithm and meta-classifiers, namely: random forest and AdaBoost. As a result, we created the decision tree model with 99.74% classification accuracy on the test dataset.

Keywords: condition monitoring; decision trees; multidimensional symptom space; non-stationary operations; planetary gearbox; spectral analysis; vibration.