Comparative Analysis of Proteomes of a Number of Nosocomial Pathogens by KEGG Modules and KEGG Pathways

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Oct 22;21(21):7839. doi: 10.3390/ijms21217839.


Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections remain a serious challenge for health systems. The reason for this lies not only in the local imperfection of medical practices and protocols. The frequency of infection with antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria is growing every year, both in developed and developing countries. In this work, a pangenome and comparative analysis of 201 genomes of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycoplasma spp. was performed on the basis of high-level functional annotations-KEGG pathways and KEGG modules. The first three organisms are serious nosocomial pathogens, often exhibiting multidrug resistance. Analysis of KEGG modules revealed methicillin resistance in 25% of S. aureus strains and resistance to carbapenems in 21% of Enterobacter spp. strains. P. aeruginosa has a wide range of unique efflux systems. One hundred percent of the analyzed strains have at least two drug resistance systems, and 75% of the strains have seven. Each of the organisms has a characteristic set of metabolic features, whose impact on drug resistance can be considered in future studies. Comparing the genomes of nosocomial pathogens with each other and with Mycoplasma genomes can expand our understanding of the versatility of certain metabolic features and mechanisms of drug resistance.

Keywords: Enterobacter spp.; KEGG modules; KEGG pathways; Mycoplasma spp.; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus; drug resistance.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial / drug effects
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial / physiology*
  • Enterobacter cloacae / genetics
  • Enterobacter cloacae / isolation & purification
  • Genome, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Mycoplasma / genetics
  • Mycoplasma / isolation & purification
  • Proteome / genetics
  • Proteome / metabolism
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / genetics
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / isolation & purification
  • Staphylococcus aureus / genetics
  • Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Proteome