Variables protecting mental health in the Spanish population affected by the COVID-19 pandemic

Curr Psychol. 2022;41(8):5640-5651. doi: 10.1007/s12144-020-01132-1. Epub 2020 Oct 22.


The pandemic produced by COVID-19 can lead the population to suffer serious psychological disorders. However, there are several psychosocial variables that can enhance resilient outcomes in adverse situations. The aim would be to establish the level of resilience of the general Spanish population exposed to a traumatic situation by the COVID-19 in order to identify which protective factors predict resilient outcomes. 1227 homebound people (863-70.3% women), aged 18-73 years (M = 28.10; SD = 12.88) reported on sociodemographic and psychological variables such as optimism, hope, self-efficacy and post-traumatic growth. Having a higher academic level (β = .47; CI (95%) = .11-.34; p < .01), being autonomous (β = .29; CI (95%) = 0.1-.09; p < .01), along with self-efficacy (β = .42; CI (95%) = .71-92; p < .01) and to a lesser extent optimism (β = .31; CI (95%) = .63-.84; p < .01) would be the predictive variables of a resilient outcome. A high level of statistical power (1-β = 1) and effect size (f2 = 19.2) is observed. The Spanish population exposed to confinement presents high levels of resilience, but no relevant post-traumatic growth has taken place.

Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-020-01132-1.

Keywords: COVID-19; Optimism; Resilience; Self-efficacy.