Anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Salvia officinalis essential oil against vanadium-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in the rat liver

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Mar;28(9):11001-11015. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-11303-z. Epub 2020 Oct 27.


The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Salvia officinalis essential oil (SOEO) against vanadium-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into three groups: the first group served as the control (C), where rats received daily 0.5 mL of saline solution (0.9%) given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) way. Rats in the second group (V) received daily by i.p. way 5 mg/kg BW of NH4VO3 (V). Rats in the third group (SV) received daily V (5 mg/kg BW) by i.p. way and SOEO (15 mg/kg BW) by gavage. Animals were sacrificed after 4 or 10 days of treatment. Administration of V increased plasma ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH activities, and cholesterol, bilirubin, triglyceride, and NO levels in rats and reduced anti-oxidant enzyme activities in the liver. Treatment with SOEO significantly attenuated these changes. Moreover, the histopathological changes and the overexpression of Hsp72/73 proteins induced by V were significantly improved by SOEO. Therefore, our results suggested that SOEO could protect against V-induced oxidative damage in rat livers. The hepatoprotective effect of SOEO might be attributed to its modulation of detoxification enzymes and/or to its anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging effects.

Keywords: Hepatotoxicity; Rats; Redox status; Salvia officinalis essential oil; Stress protein; Vanadium.

Publication types

  • Retracted Publication

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury* / drug therapy
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury* / metabolism
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury* / prevention & control
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Oils, Volatile* / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Plant Extracts / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Salvia officinalis*
  • Vanadium / toxicity


  • Antioxidants
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Extracts
  • Vanadium