The COVID-19 nephrology compendium: AKI, CKD, ESKD and transplantation

BMC Nephrol. 2020 Oct 27;21(1):449. doi: 10.1186/s12882-020-02112-0.

Abstract

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) has been an unprecedented period. The disease afflicts multiple organ systems, with acute kidney injury (AKI) a major complication in seriously ill patients. The incidence of AKI in patients with CoVID-19 is variable across numerous international studies, but the high incidence of AKI and its associated worse outcomes in the critical care setting are a consistent finding. A multitude of patterns and mechanisms of AKI have been elucidated, and novel strategies to address shortage of renal replacement therapy equipment have been implemented. The disease also has had consequences on longitudinal management of patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage kidney disease. Kidney transplant recipients may be especially susceptible to CoVID-19 as a result of immunosuppression, with preliminary studies demonstrating high mortality rates. Increased surveillance of disease with low threshold for testing and adjustment of immunosuppression regimen during acute periods of illness have been recommended.

Keywords: AKI; CKD; CoVID-19; Disparity; ESKD; Transplantation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / therapy
  • Age Factors
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Betacoronavirus*
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / complications*
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Coronavirus Infections / mortality
  • Critical Care
  • Healthcare Disparities
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression / adverse effects
  • Immunosuppression / methods
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy*
  • Kidney Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Kidney Transplantation* / methods
  • Kidney Transplantation* / mortality
  • Pandemics
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • Pneumonia, Viral / complications*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / mortality
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Renal Replacement Therapy / instrumentation
  • Risk Factors
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Sex Factors
  • Transplant Recipients
  • Vulnerable Populations

Substances

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • ACE2 protein, human
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2