Diagnostic performance of the STOP-Bang questionnaire as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea in different ethnic groups

J Clin Sleep Med. 2021 Mar 1;17(3):521-532. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.8940.

Abstract

Study objectives: The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a concise and easy screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Using modified body mass index (BMI), we assessed the diagnostic performance of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in predicting OSA in ethnically different groups of patients undergoing surgery.

Methods: This was a multicenter prospective cohort study involving patients with cardiovascular risk factors who were undergoing major noncardiac surgery. Patients underwent home sleep apnea testing. All patients completed the STOP-Bang questionnaire. The predictive parameters of STOP-Bang scores were calculated against the apnea-hypopnea index.

Results: From 4 ethnic groups 1,205 patients (666 Chinese, 161 Indian, 195 Malay, and 183 Caucasian) were included in the study. The mean BMI ranged from 25 ± 4 to 30 ± 6 kg/m² and mean age ranged from 64 ± 8 to 71 ± 10 years. For the Chinese and Indian patients, diagnostic parameters are presented using BMI threshold of 27.5 kg/m² with the area under curve to predict moderate-to-severe OSA being 0.709 (0.665-0.753) and 0.722 (0.635-0.808), respectively. For the Malay and Caucasian, diagnostic parameters are presented using BMI threshold of 35 kg/m² with the area under curve for predicting moderate-to-severe OSA being 0.645 (0.572-0.720) and 0.657 (0.578-0.736), respectively. Balancing the sensitivity and specificity, the optimal STOP-Bang thresholds for the Chinese, Indian, Malay, and Caucasian groups were determined to be 4 or greater.

Conclusions: For predicting moderate-to-severe OSA, we recommend BMI threshold of 27.5 kg/m² for Chinese and Indian patients and 35 kg/m² for Malay and Caucasian patients. The optimal STOP-Bang threshold for the Chinese, Indian, Malay and Caucasian groups is 4 or greater.

Clinical trial registration: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Name: Postoperative Vascular Events in Unrecognized Obstructive Sleep Apnea; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01494181; Identifier: NCT01494181.

Keywords: STOP-Bang questionnaire; body mass index; obstructive sleep apnea; screening tool; surgery.

Publication types

  • Clinical Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Ethnic Groups*
  • Humans
  • Mass Screening
  • Middle Aged
  • Polysomnography
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01494181