Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.
Keywords: MCC-Spain; anatomic; diet; epidemiology; gastric cancer; histologic; lignans; phenolic acids; polyphenols; stilbenes.