The main objective of this narrative review is to describe the available evidence on the possible antiviral activity of ozone in patients with COVID-19 and its therapeutic applicability through hospital protocols. Amongst different possible therapies for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, ozone therapy seems to have an immunological role because of the modulation of cytokines and interferons, including the induction of gamma interferon. Some data suggest the possible role of ozone therapy in SARS, either as a monotherapy or, more realistically, as an adjunct to standard treatment regimens; therefore, there is increasing interest in the role of ozone therapy in COVID-19 treatment The PubMed and Scopus databases and the Italian Scientific Society of Oxygen Ozone Therapy website were used to identify articles focused on ozone therapy. The search was limited to articles published from January 2011 to July 2020. Of 280 articles found on ozone therapy, 13 were selected and narratively reviewed. Ozone exerts antiviral activity through the inhibition of viral replication and direct inactivation of viruses. Ozone is an antiviral drug enhancer and is not an alternative to antiviral drugs. Combined treatment with involving ozone and antivirals demonstrated a reduction in inflammation and lung damage. The routes of ozone administration are direct intravenous, major autohaemotherapy and extravascular blood oxygenation-ozonation. Systemic ozone therapy seems useful in controlling inflammation, stimulating immunity and as antiviral activity and providing protection from acute coronary syndromes and ischaemia reperfusion damage, thus suggesting a new methodology of immune therapy. Systemic ozone therapy in combination with antivirals in COVID-19-positive patients may be justified, helpful and synergic.
Keywords: Antiviral; Autohaemotherapy; COVID-19; Ozone therapy; Pulmonary diseases.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.