Introduction: Endothelium dysfunction and decrease of incretin effects occur early in type 2 diabetes mellitus and these changes contribute to diabetic cardiovascular complications such as atherosclerosis, thick intima-media, coronary, and peripheral arterial diseases. In patients with diabetes, the femoral artery is a site of a high incidence of injury in peripheral vascular diseases, and atherosclerotic changes may appear earlier in the femoral artery compared to the carotid artery. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of increased femoral artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and atherosclerotic plaque and their correlation with serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in newly-diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 332 patients with nT2D in the National Endocrinology Hospital, Vietnam from January 2015 to May 2018. IMT was measured by Doppler ultrasound and GLP-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All data were analyzed with SPSS version 26 for Windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL).
Results: Prevalence of thick femoral artery IMT and atherosclerotic plaque was 38.2 and 22.3%, respectively. There was a relationship between IMT and age, waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting GLP-1, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP) and 24-hour microalbuminuria secretion (24-h MAUS). The fasting serum GLP-1 (fGLP-1) levels were reduced significantly in patients with thickness and atherosclerosis femoral artery (p = 0.001). After adjusting with other related factors, namely, DBP and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), whilst hsCRP and 24-h MAUS showed a significantly positive correlation to IMT (Standardized B and p of 0.242, 0.004 and 0.178, 0.043, respectively), fGLP-1 showed a significantly negative correlation to IMT (Standardized B = -0.288, p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Among n2TD, the percentage for femoral artery thick IMT and atherosclerosis was 38.2% and 22.3% respectively, and serum GLP-1 was negatively correlated with thick IMT and atherosclerosis.
Keywords: femoral artery; intima-media thickness and atherosclerotic plaque; newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus; serum glucagon-like peptide-1 levels.
© 2020 Le et al.