Differences in the Association Among the Vitamin D Concentration, Dietary Macronutrient Consumption, and Metabolic Syndrome Depending on Pre- and Postmenopausal Status in Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020 Oct 9;13:3601-3609. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S275847. eCollection 2020.


Background and objectives: To assess whether the consumption of dietary macronutrient could change metabolic syndrome (MetS) related to vitamin D deficiency according to menopausal status.

Methods and study design: In a cross-sectional study of 8326 Korean women from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012), we investigated the combined interaction effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and menopausal status on MetS-related variables.

Results: The prevalence rates of 25(OH)D deficiency (vitamin D <50 nmol/L) among premenopausal and postmenopausal women were 84.5% and 67.9%, respectively. Significant differences in MetS-related variables such as body mass index (P<0.001), waist circumference (P=0.005), fast glucose (P=0.048), triglycerides (P=0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.027) based on 25(OH)D concentration were observed among postmenopausal women but not among premenopausal women. Among the postmenopausal women with high consumption of dietary carbohydrate, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)] of MetS among participants with 25(OH)D deficiency increased 1.380-fold (95% CI = 1.086-1.753) using the 25(OH)D-sufficient group as a reference. In contrast, the participants with 25(OH)D deficiency showed an increased risk of MetS [OR (95% CI) = 1.313 (1.041-1.655)] with low-fat consumption. However, the aforementioned findings did not differ among premenopausal women.

Conclusion: Thus, MetS due to 25(OH)D deficiency among postmenopausal women may be modified by the consumption of dietary macronutrient.

Keywords: Korean national health and nutrition examination survey; dietary macronutrient; menopausal status; metabolic syndrome; vitamin D.

Grant support

This paper was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science (NRF-2019R1C1C1002149), the research funds of Kunsan National University, and the Cooperative Research Program for Agricultural Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ011253062018) of the Republic of Korea.