The prevalence of psychological consequences of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

J Health Psychol. 2022 Mar;27(4):805-824. doi: 10.1177/1359105320966639. Epub 2020 Oct 29.


A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted to examine the overall prevalence of psychological health outcomes during COVID-19. Seven databases were systematically searched to include studies reporting on at least one psychological outcome. The pooled prevalence of primary psychological outcomes was 26% (95%CI: 21-32). Pooled prevalence for symptoms of PTSD was 33% (0-86), anxiety 28% (21-36), stress 27% (14-43), and depression 22% (13-33). The prevalence of psychological outcomes was similar in healthcare workers and in the general population (34% [24-44] and 33% [27-40] respectively). High prevalence figures support the importance of ensuring adequate provision of resources for mental health.

Keywords: COVID-19; mental health; meta-analysis; pandemic; psychiatry; systematic review.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Anxiety / psychology
  • COVID-19*
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • SARS-CoV-2