Exosomes: Novel Players of Therapy Resistance in Neuroblastoma

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1277:75-85. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-50224-9_5.

Abstract

Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor (a lump or mass), often found in the small glands on top of the kidneys, and most commonly affects infants and young children. Among neuroblastomas, high-risk neuroblastomas are very aggressive and resistant to most kinds of intensive treatment. Immunotherapy, which uses the immune system to fight against cancer, has shown great promise in treating many types of cancer. However, high-risk neuroblastoma is often resistant to this approach as well. Recent studies revealed that small vesicles known as exosomes, which are envelopes, could deliver a cargo of small RNA molecules and provide communication between neuroblastoma cells and the surrounding cells and trigger metastasis and resistance to immunotherapy. In this chapter, we describe the role of exosomes and small RNA molecules in the metastasis and regression of neuroblastoma and the potential therapeutic approaches to combat this menace.

Keywords: Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity; Chemotherapy; Disialoganglioside; Exosome biogenesis; Exosomes; Extracellular vesicles; Immunotherapy; MYCN; Metastasis; Multivesicular bodies; Neuroblastoma; Non-coding RNAs; Pericytes; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated monocytes.