Electrical neural interfaces serve as direct communication pathways that connect the nervous system with the external world. Technological advances in this domain are providing increasingly more powerful tools to study, restore, and augment neural functions. Yet, the complexities of the nervous system give rise to substantial challenges in the design, fabrication, and system-level integration of these functional devices. In this review, we present snapshots of the latest progresses in electrical neural interfaces, with an emphasis on advances that expand the spatiotemporal resolution and extent of mapping and manipulating brain circuits. We include discussions of large-scale, long-lasting neural recording; wireless, miniaturized implants; signal transmission, amplification, and processing; as well as the integration of interfaces with optical modalities. We outline the background and rationale of these developments and share insights into the future directions and new opportunities they enable.
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