Environmental behavior and safety of polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCZs): A review

Environ Pollut. 2020 Oct 5;268(Pt A):115717. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115717. Online ahead of print.


Polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCZs) are well-known as emergent environmental contaminants. Given their wide distribution in the environment and structural similarity with dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs), the environmental behavior and ecological risks of these chemicals have become the major issue concerned by the governments and scientists. Since the initial report of PHCZ residues in the environment in the 1980s, over 20 PHCZ congeners with different residual levels had been identified in various environmental media all over the world. Nevertheless, researches concerning the toxicological effects of PHCZs are of an urgent need for the relatively lagging study of their ecological risks. Currently, only limited evidence has indicated that PHCZs would pose dioxin-like toxicity, including developmental toxicity, cardiotoxicity, etc; and their toxicological effects were partially consistent with AhR activation. And yet, much remains to be done to fill in the knowledge gaps of their toxicological effects. In this review, the research progresses in environmental behavior and toxicology study of PHCZs were remarked; and the lack of current research, as well as future research prospects, were discussed.

Keywords: Dioxin-like effects; Environment behavior; Polyhalogenated carbazoles; Residue; Toxicological effects.

Publication types

  • Review