Modern treatment of retinoblastoma: A 2020 review

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020 Nov;68(11):2356-2365. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_721_20.


Retinoblastoma management remains complex, requiring individualized treatment based on International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) staging, germline mutation status, family psychosocial factors and cultural beliefs, and available institutional resources. For this 2020 retinoblastoma review, PubMed was searched for articles dated as early as 1931, with an emphasis on articles from 1990 to the present day, using keywords of retinoblastoma, chemotherapy, intravenous chemotherapy, chemoreduction, intra-arterial chemotherapy, ophthalmic artery chemosurgery, intravitreal chemotherapy, intracameral chemotherapy, cryotherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy, laser, radiation, external beam radiotherapy, plaque radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and enucleation. We discuss current treatment modalities as used in the year 2020, including intravenous chemotherapy (IVC), intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC), intravitreal chemotherapy (IvitC), intracameral chemotherapy (IcamC), consolidation therapies (cryotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy [TTT]), radiation-based therapies (external beam radiotherapy [EBRT] and plaque radiotherapy), and enucleation. Additionally, we present a consensus treatment algorithm based on the agreement of three North American retinoblastoma treatment centers, and encourage further collaboration amongst the world's most expert retinoblastoma treatment centers in order to develop consensus management plans and continue advancement in the identification and treatment of this childhood cancer.

Keywords: Algorithm; eye; oncology; pediatric; retinoblastoma; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
  • Child
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cryotherapy
  • Eye Enucleation
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Retinoblastoma* / diagnosis
  • Retinoblastoma* / epidemiology
  • Retinoblastoma* / therapy