Physicochemical Investigations of Homeopathic Preparations: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis-Part 3

J Altern Complement Med. 2021 Jan;27(1):45-57. doi: 10.1089/acm.2020.0243. Epub 2020 Oct 28.


Objectives: In parts I and II of our review of physicochemical research performed on homeopathic preparations, we identified relevant publications and analyzed the data in terms of individual experiments, looking for the most promising techniques that were used in the past. In this third part, we analyze the results of the experiments seeking to extract information about the possible modes of action underpinning homeopathic preparations. Methods: We summarized the results from the 11 experimental areas previously introduced, extracting the general findings and trends. We also summarized the results in terms of specific research topics: aging, medium used for potentization, sample volume, temperature, material of potentization vessel, and, finally, the use of molecules to probe homeopathic samples. Results: We identified a number of effects that appear consistently throughout the data: Differences to controls seem to increase with: time, moderate temperature, small samples volume, and in ionic medium, whereas high temperatures seem to abolish differences to controls. Based on the present analysis, there is no consistent evidence to date for the nanoparticle hypothesis to explain specific homeopathic treatment effects. However, the quantum coherence domain hypothesis, the dynamic water cluster hypothesis, and the weak quantum theory are still contenders and need to be further assessed experimentally. Conclusions: The field requires further targeted experimentation to validate past findings reporting differences between homeopathic dilutions and controls, and to expand these findings by specifically testing the three main working hypotheses that are currently at hand.

Keywords: physics; serially diluted and agitated solutions; ultrahigh aqueous dilutions; very high dilutions.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Bibliometrics*
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
  • Homeopathy*
  • Humans
  • Materia Medica* / analysis
  • Materia Medica* / chemistry
  • Nanoparticles
  • Quantum Theory
  • Research Design


  • Materia Medica