Multiplex bioassaying of cancer proteins and biomacromolecules: Nanotechnological, structural and technical perspectives

Int J Biol Macromol. 2020 Dec 15;165(Pt B):3020-3039. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.191. Epub 2020 Oct 27.


Since the specific proteins (carbohydrate antigens, ligands and interleukins) get raised up in body tissue or fluids in cancer cases, early detection of them will provide an effective treatment and survival rate. Sensitive and accurate determination of multiple cancer proteins can be engaged in chorus by simultaneous/multiplex detection in the biomedical fields. Bioassaying technology is one of the non-invasive, high-sensitive, and economical methods. Currently, extensive application of nanomaterial (biocompatible polymers, metallic and metal oxide) in bioassays resulted in ultra-high sensitive and selective diagnosis. This review article focuses on types of multiplex bioassays for delicate and specific determination of cancer proteins for diagnostic aims. It also covers two modes of multiplex bioassays as multi labeled bioassays and spatially-separated test zones (multi-electrode mode). In this review, the nanotechnological, structural, and technical perspectives in the multiplex analysis of cancer proteins were discussed. Finally, the use of different types of nanomaterials, polysaccharides, biopolymers and their advantages in signal amplification are discussed.

Keywords: Advanced nanomaterial; Biotechnology; Carbohydrate antigens; Carbohydrate polymers; Ligands; Lignins; Multiplex bioassay; Polyamino acids; Polysaccharides; Protein.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Assay / trends
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / therapeutic use
  • Biopolymers / chemistry
  • Biopolymers / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Nanostructures / chemistry
  • Nanostructures / therapeutic use
  • Nanotechnology*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / chemistry
  • Neoplasm Proteins / genetics*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / therapeutic use
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Neoplasms / genetics*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Biopolymers
  • Neoplasm Proteins