Binocular anomalies and reading problems

J Am Optom Assoc. 1987 Jul;58(7):578-87.


This paper reviews and evaluates the research literature on the relationship of binocular anomalies to reading problems. The weight of the evidence supports a positive relationship between certain binocular anomalies and reading problems. The evidence is positive for exophoria at near, fusional vergence reserves, aniseikonia, anisometropia, convergence insufficiency, and fixation disparity. There is some weak positive evidence for esophoria at near and mixed evidence for stereopsis. The evidence on lateral phorias at distance is negative.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aniseikonia / complications
  • Convergence, Ocular
  • Dyslexia, Acquired / etiology*
  • Fixation, Ocular
  • Humans
  • Ocular Physiological Phenomena
  • Refractive Errors / complications
  • Strabismus / complications
  • Vision Disorders / complications*
  • Vision, Ocular