Humans and animals are frequently exposed to PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) through drinking water and food; however, no therapeutic sorbent strategies have been developed to mitigate this problem. Montmorillonites amended with the common nutrients, carnitine and choline, were characterized for their ability to bind 4 representative PFAS (PFOA, PFOS, GenX, and PFBS). Adsorption/desorption isothermal analysis showed that PFOA, PFOS (and a mixture of the two) fit the Langmuir model with high binding capacity, affinity and enthalpy at conditions simulating the stomach. A low percentage of desorption occurred at conditions simulating the intestine. The results suggested that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and hydrogen bonding were responsible for sequestering PFAS into clay interlayers. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested the key mode of interaction of PFAS was through fluorinated carbon chains, and confirmed that PFOA and PFOS had enhanced binding to amended clays compared to GenX and PFBS. The safety and efficacy of amended montmorillonite clays were confirmed in Hydra vulgaris, where a mixture of amended sorbents delivered the highest protection against a PFAS mixture. These important results suggest that the inclusion of edible, nutrient-amended clays with optimal affinity, capacity, and enthalpy can be used to decrease the bioavailability of PFAS from contaminated drinking water and diets.
Keywords: Adsorption/desorption isotherms; Hydra; Molecular dynamics simulations; Montmorillonite clay; Nutrient-amended clay; PFAS.
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