Measuring perfectionism, impulsivity, self-esteem and social anxiety: Cross-national study in emerging adults from eight countries

Body Image. 2020 Dec;35:265-278. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.09.012. Epub 2020 Oct 23.


This study assessed the measurement invariance of selected self-report measures of perfectionism, impulsivity, self-esteem and social anxiety in samples of emerging adults from eight different countries. Participants (N = 6272) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the 5-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (5-item RSES) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS-6). Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was run to examine cross-measure equivalence. Evidence for structural invariance was found for all questionnaires, while weak invariance was supported only for the 5-item RSES and the SIAS-6, and a partial weak invariance was found for the MPS and the UPPS-P. No measure achieved strong invariance. Strict invariance was achieved for the 5-item RSES, whereas only a partial strict invariance was supported for the MPS, UPPS-P and SIAS-6. These results suggest that perfectionism, impulsivity, self-esteem, and social anxiety are subjected to linguistic/cultural influence as well as to the effects of socio-demographic variables and can be evaluated by using the selected measures in eight different countries worldwide - but results should be interpreted with caution.

Keywords: Comparative research; Emerging adults; Impulsivity; Perfectionism; Self-esteem; Social anxiety.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anxiety / psychology*
  • Body Image / psychology*
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Impulsive Behavior / physiology*
  • Male
  • Perfectionism*
  • Self Concept*
  • Young Adult