Staphylococcus aureus Infection and Persistence in Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Focus on Leukocidin ED

Toxins (Basel). 2020 Oct 28;12(11):678. doi: 10.3390/toxins12110678.


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is thought to be a multifactorial disease that includes a direct involvement of bacteria that trigger inflammation and contribute to CRS pathogenesis. Staphylococcus aureus infection and persistence is associated with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and it may be particularly relevant in the form with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). The large array of exotoxins deployed by S. aureus is instrumental for the bacterium to warrant its infection and dissemination in different human body districts. Here, we analyze the common Th2 environment in CRSwNP and prospect a possible dynamic role played by S. aureus leukocidins in promoting this chronic inflammation, considering leukocidin ED (LukED) as a strong prototype candidate worth of therapeutic investigation. CCR5 is an essential target for LukED to exert its cytotoxicity towards T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Therefore, CCR5 blockade might be an interesting therapeutic option for CRS and, more specifically, persistent and relapsing CRSwNP. In this perspective, the arsenal of CCR5 antagonists being developed to inhibit HIV-1 entry (CCR5 being the major HIV-1 co-receptor) could be easily repurposed for CRS therapeutic investigation. Finally, direct targeting of LukED by neutralizing antibodies could represent an important additional solution to S. aureus infection.

Keywords: CCR5; LukED; Staphylococcus aureus; chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS); nasal polyps; persistent infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Toxins*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Leukocidins*
  • Nasal Polyps*
  • Rhinitis*
  • Sinusitis*
  • Staphylococcal Infections*


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Leukocidins