This article explores high-fidelity simulation in anesthesiology education and provides strategies for its use to improve management of critical events. Educational theories that underlie the use of simulation are described. High-fidelity simulation is useful in teaching technical (diagnostic and procedural) and nontechnical (communication and professionalism) skills, including crisis resource management (CRM) skills. The practice of CRM is fundamental to ensuring patient safety during critical events and to the safe practice of anesthesiology, and its critical elements are presented. A discussion of the use of high-fidelity simulation to learn to combine highly complex procedural skills and CRM is also provided.
Keywords: Anesthesiology/education; Crisis management; Feedback; High-fidelity simulation; Mannequins; Medical education; Patient safety; Performance improvement.
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