Background and aims: Canola oil (CO) is a plant-based oil with the potential to improve several cardiometabolic risk factors. We systematically reviewed controlled clinical trials investigating the effects of CO on lipid profiles, apo-lipoproteins, glycemic indices, inflammation, and blood pressure compared to other edible oils in adults.
Methods and results: Online databases were searched for articles up to January 2020. Forty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. CO significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC, -0.27 mmol/l, n = 37), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, -0.23 mmol/l, n = 35), LDL-C to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (LDL/HDL, -0.21, n = 10), TC/HDL (-0.13, n = 15), apolipoprotein B (Apo B, -0.03 g/l, n = 14), and Apo B/Apo A-1 (-0.02, n = 6) compared to other edible oils (P < 0.05). Compared to olive oil, CO decreased TC (-0.23 mmol/l, n = 9), LDL-C (-0.17 mmol/l, n = 9), LDL/HDL (-0.39, n = 2), and triglycerides in VLDL (VLDL-TG, -0.10 mmol/l, n = 2) (P < 0.05). Compared to sunflower oil, CO improved LDL-C (-0.14 mmol/l, n = 11), and LDL/HDL (-0.30, n = 3) (P < 0.05). In comparison with saturated fats, CO improved TC (-0.59 mmol/l, n = 11), TG (-0.08 mmol/l, n = 11), LDL-C (-0.49 mmol/l, n = 10), TC/HDL (-0.29, n = 5), and Apo B (-0.09 g/l, n = 4) (P < 0.05). Based on the nonlinear dose-response curve, replacing CO with ~15% of total caloric intake provided the greatest benefits.
Conclusion: CO significantly improved different cardiometabolic risk factors compared to other edible oils. Further well-designed clinical trials are warranted to confirm the dose-response associations.
Keywords: Blood lipids; Blood pressure; Canola oil; Cardiovascular risk factors; Dose–response; Glycemic control; Meta-analysis; Rapeseed oil.
Copyright © 2020 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.