Pectinatus spp. - Unpleasant and recurrent brewing spoilage bacteria

Int J Food Microbiol. 2021 Jan 2;336:108900. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108900. Epub 2020 Oct 16.


Traditionally, beer has been recognised as a beverage with high microbiological stability because of the hostile growth environment posed by beer and increasing attention being paid to brewery hygiene. However, the microbiological risk has increased in recent years because of technological advances toward reducing oxygen in beers, besides the increase in novel beer styles production, such as non-pasteurised, flash pasteurised, cold sterilised, mid-strength, and alcoholic-free beer, that are more prone to spoilage bacteria. Moreover, using innovative beer ingredients like fruits and vegetables is an added cause of microbial spoilage. To maintain quality and good brand image, beer spoilage microorganisms are a critical concern for breweries worldwide. Pectinatus and Megasphaera are Gram-negative bacteria mostly found in improper brewing environments, leading to consumer complaints and financial losses. Because of the lack of compiled scientific knowledge on Pectinatus spoilage ability, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the occurrence, survival mechanisms, and the factors affecting beer spoilage Pectinatus species in the brewing process.

Keywords: Anaerobic bacteria; Beer spoilage; Biofilm; Brewing; Pectinatus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Beer / microbiology*
  • Fermentation
  • Food Microbiology*
  • Megasphaera / physiology
  • Pectinatus / physiology*