Factors Associated With Failure to Achieve the Intensive Blood Pressure Target in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

Hypertension. 2020 Dec;76(6):1725-1733. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16155. Epub 2020 Nov 2.


SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) found that randomization of nondiabetic participants at high cardiovascular risk to an intensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] <120 mm Hg) versus standard (SBP <140 mm Hg) target resulted in 25% risk reduction in the first cardiovascular composite event (ie, cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure) and a 27% risk reduction in all-cause mortality. In this post hoc analysis, we sought to determine the factors associated with failure to achieve the SBP target in 4678 SPRINT participants randomized to the intensive treatment group. Using a generalized estimating equation model, we assessed variables associated with failure to achieve the intensive SBP target as a repeated outcome collected during serial follow-up visits, including the occurrence of serious adverse events. In the multivariable model adjusted for baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables, older age, higher SBP, underlying chronic kidney disease, higher number of antihypertensives, and moderate cognitive impairment at screening were associated with failure to achieve the intensive SBP target. Occurrence of a serious adverse event during the trial was associated with 20% higher odds of failure to achieve the SBP target. Participants of Hispanic ethnicity had 47% lower odds of failure to achieve the intensive SBP target relative to non-Hispanic Whites. Understanding barriers to achieving intensive SBP targets should allow clinicians to optimize management of hypertension in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: blood pressure; cardiovascular diseases; hypertension; renal insufficiency, chronic; risk factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antihypertensive Agents