Genetics of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: New Insights

Front Genet. 2020 Oct 7;11:574474. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2020.574474. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most common monogenic diseases, leading to an increased risk of premature atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications due to its effect on plasma cholesterol levels. Variants of three genes (LDL-R, APOB and PCSK9) are the major causes of FH, but in some probands, the FH phenotype is associated with variants of other genes. Alternatively, the typical clinical picture of FH can result from the accumulation of common cholesterol-increasing alleles (polygenic FH). Although the Czech Republic is one of the most successful countries with respect to FH detection, approximately 80% of FH patients remain undiagnosed. The opportunities for international collaboration and experience sharing within international programs (e.g., EAS FHSC, ScreenPro FH, etc.) will improve the detection of FH patients in the future and enable even more accessible and accurate genetic diagnostics.

Keywords: epidemiology; familial hypercholesterolemia; gene score; polygenic FH; variants.

Publication types

  • Review