Background: Unplanned hospitalization following ureteroscopy (URS) for urinary stone disease is associated with patient morbidity and increased healthcare costs. To this effect, AUA guidelines recommend at least a urinalysis in patients prior to URS. We examined risk factors for infection-related hospitalization following URS for urinary stones in a surgical collaborative.
Methods: Reducing Operative Complications from Kidney Stones (ROCKS) is a quality improvement (QI) initiative from the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MUSIC) consisting of academic and community practices in the State of Michigan. Trained abstractors prospectively record standardized data elements from the health record in a web-based registry including patient characteristics, surgical details and complications. Using the ROCKS registry, we identified all patients undergoing primary URS for urinary stones between June 2016 and October 2017, and determined the proportion hospitalized within 30 days with an infection-related complication. These patients underwent chart review to obtain clinical data related to the hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors for hospitalization.
Results: 1817 URS procedures from 11 practices were analyzed. 43 (2.4%) patients were hospitalized with an infection-related complication, and the mortality rate was 0.2%. Median time to admission and length of stay was 4 and 3 days, respectively. Nine (20.9%) patients did not have a pre-procedure urinalysis or urine culture, which was not different in the non-hospitalized cohort (20.5%). In hospitalized patients, pathogens included gram-negative (61.5%), gram-positive (19.2%), yeast (15.4%), and mixed (3.8%) organisms. Significant factors associated with infection-related hospitalization included higher Charlson comorbidity index, history of recurrent UTI, stone size, intra-operative complication, and procedures where fragments were left in-situ.
Conclusions: One in 40 patients are hospitalized with an infection-related complication following URS. Awareness of risk factors may allow for individualized counselling and management to reduce these events. Approximately 20% of patients did not have a pre-operative urine analysis or culture, and these findings demonstrate the need for further study to improve urine testing and compliance.
Keywords: Infection; Outcomes; Quality improvement; Ureteroscopy; Urolithiasis.