Recharge and increase in hardness of GIC with CPP-ACP/F

Dent Mater. 2020 Dec;36(12):1608-1614. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2020 Nov 2.


Objective: To assess the effect of CPP-ACP/F recharging on ion release and hardness of GIC Fuji-Triage (VII) and Fuji-Triage-EP (VII-EP) containing CPP-ACP/F.

Methods: CPP-ACP distribution in Fuji-Triage-EP was determined using immunofluorescence. Thirty blocks of Fuji-Triage and Fuji-Triage-EP with the same surface area were placed individually in 5mL of 50mM lactic acid (pH 5) for three days. Every 12h ten Fuji-Triage and ten Fuji-Triage-EP blocks were treated with 2mL of either MI Paste Plus (CPP-ACP/F) solution (1g paste+4mL water), Placebo MI paste solution (no CPP-ACP/F), or distilled water for 2min. After each 2min treatment the blocks were rinsed with distilled water and placed back into the acid. Calcium, inorganic phosphate and fluoride levels in the acid solution were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry and ion specific electrode respectively. Vickers surface hardness of the GIC was also determined. Data were analysed using a two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple comparisons.

Results: CPP-ACP was distributed throughout Fuji-Triage-EP. Significantly (p<0.001) higher calcium, inorganic phosphate and fluoride ion release and greater surface hardness (acid resistance) was observed in both GIC's treated with the CPP-ACP/F paste. Fuji-Triage-EP released higher ion levels and exhibited greater surface hardness (acid resistance) than Fuji-Triage.

Significance: Topical application of CPP-ACP/F paste to GIC Fuji-Triage-EP recharged ion release and increased surface hardness (acid resistance) which may help improve properties and resistance to degradation as well as improve ion release for caries control.

Keywords: CPP-ACP/F; Fuji-Triage-EP; GIC; Immunofluorescence; Ion release; MI paste plus; Recharge; Surface microhardness.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Caseins
  • Dental Enamel*
  • Fluorides*
  • Hardness
  • Tooth Remineralization


  • Caseins
  • casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex
  • Fluorides