Specialized Histological and Histomorphometrical Analytical Methods for Biocompatibility Testing of Biomaterials for Maxillofacial Surgery in (Pre-) Clinical Studies

In Vivo. 2020 Nov-Dec;34(6):3137-3152. doi: 10.21873/invivo.12148.


Both preclinical in vivo experiments and clinical trials are indispensable for analysis of tissue reactions in evaluating the compatibility of biomaterials or medical devices, i.e. the cell types interacting with the material, integration or degradation behavior, implant bed vascularization and immunological response. In particular, both the histological workup (including the processes such as embedding, cutting, histochemical and immunohistochemical staining methods), as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis are crucial steps enabling the final evaluation of biocompatibility. We present a short overview of the most important steps of the different workup and analytical methods used in preclinical and clinical biopsies for both novice and experienced researchers in the field of biomaterial science.

Keywords: Histology; biopsies; histochemical staining; histological workup; histomorphometry; immunohistochemistry; review.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials*
  • Materials Testing
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Surgery, Oral*


  • Biocompatible Materials