Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fermentation liquid protects against alcoholic liver disease linked to regulation of liver metabolome and the abundance of gut microbiota

J Sci Food Agric. 2021 May;101(7):2846-2854. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.10915. Epub 2020 Nov 20.


Background: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) refers to liver damage caused by long-term heavy drinking, which causes oxidative stress and changes in gut microbiota. In this paper, we investigated the hepatoprotective effect of sea buckthorn fermentation liquid on ALD in mice and the interaction between ALD and gut microbiota using animal experiments and gut microbiota measurements.

Results: We found that the contents of total flavonoids, total triterpenes and related short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in sea buckthorn fermentation liquid (SFL) were significantly greater. Liver index, kidney index, spleen index, serum indexes of liver injury - alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and spartate aminotransferase (AST), inflammatory factors in liver tissues - tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), oxidation indexes - malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid metabolism indexes - high-density liptein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG), suggested that SFL significantly ameliorates liver injury caused by alcohol. By measuring gut microbiota in mice feces samples, we found that the high-dose group of SFL reversed the declining trend of the gut microbiota Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio caused by alcohol, reducing the number of gram-negative bacteroidetes. Patescibacteria was tightly connected with the indicators of ALD. At the genus level, high-dose SFL significantly downregulated Akkermansia, Turicibacter, Alistipes and Ruminiclostridium, and improved the abundance of beneficial bacteria in Lactobacillus. In addition, Alistipes and Ruminiclostridium was closely connected with the indicators of ALD.

Conclusion: Sea buckthorn fermentation liquid protected against alcoholic liver disease and modulated the composition of gut microbiota. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: Hepatoprotective; alcoholic liver disease; fermentation liquid; gut microbiota; oxidative stress; sea buckthorn.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / classification
  • Bacteria / genetics
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Endostatins
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Fermentation
  • Fermented Foods / analysis*
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Fruit / metabolism
  • Fruit / microbiology
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices / analysis*
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices / microbiology
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Hippophae / chemistry
  • Hippophae / metabolism*
  • Hippophae / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Lactobacillus plantarum / metabolism
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / diet therapy*
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / metabolism
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / microbiology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Peptide Fragments


  • AP25 peptide
  • Endostatins
  • Peptide Fragments