Objective: To evaluate the association of dietary inflammatory index (DII®) with the occurrence of cardiovascular events, cardiometabolic risk factors and with the consumption of processed, ultra-processed, unprocessed or minimally processed foods and culinary ingredients.
Design: This was a cross-sectional study that analysed the baseline data from 2359 cardiac patients. Data on socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical and food consumption were collected. Energy-adjusted food intake data were used to calculate DII, and the foods were classified according to the NOVA classification. Furthermore, the patients were grouped according to the number (1, 2 or ≥ 3) of manifested cardiovascular events. The data were analysed using linear and multinomial logistic regression.
Settings: Multicentre study from Brazil.
Participants: Patients with established cardiovascular events from the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial evaluated at baseline.
Results: Most of the patients were male (58·8 %), older adults (64·2 %) and were overweight (68·8 %). Patients in the third tertile of DII (DII > 0·91) had were more likely to have 2 (OR 1·27, 95 % CI: 1·01-1·61) and ≥ 3 (OR 1·39, 95 % CI: 1·07-1·79) cardiovascular events, with poor cardiometabolic profile. They also were more likely to consume a higher percentage of processed, ultra-processed and culinary ingredients foods consumption compared with the patients in the first DII tertile (DII ≤ 0·91).
Conclusion: A more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a greater chance of having 2 and ≥ 3 cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors and were more likely to consume processed, ultra-processed and culinary ingredients compared to those with a more anti-inflammatory diet.
Keywords: CVD; Dietary inflammatory index; NOVA classification; Nutrition; Secondary care.