PIPAC-OX: A Phase I Study of Oxaliplatin-Based Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy in Patients with Peritoneal Metastases

Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Apr 1;27(7):1875-1881. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2152. Epub 2020 Nov 4.


Purpose: Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a novel laparoscopic, intraperitoneal chemotherapy delivery technique aiming to improve drug distribution and tissue penetration to treat peritoneal metastases. Thus far, PIPAC oxaliplatin is conducted at an arbitrary dose of 92 mg/m2. We conducted a phase I study to establish safety and tolerability.

Patients and methods: We used a 3+3 dose-escalation design of PIPAC oxaliplatin for patients with peritoneal metastases from gastrointestinal tumors, after failure of at least first-line chemotherapy. Dose levels were planned at 45, 60, 90, and 120 mg/m2.

Results: This study included 16 patients with 24 PIPAC procedures (8 gastric; 5 colorectal; and 1 gallbladder, pancreas, and appendix cancer each). Median age and peritoneal cancer index (PCI) score were 62 years and 17, respectively. Two patients developed pancreatitis (grade 2 and 3) at 45 mg/m2, necessitating cohort expansion. Another patient developed grade 2 pancreatitis at 90 mg/m2. There were no other dose-limiting toxicities, and the highest-dose cohort (120 mg/m2) tolerated PIPAC well. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated good linearity between dose and maximum concentration (r 2 = 0.95) and AUC (r 2 = 0.99). On the basis of RECIST, 62.5% and 50% had stable disease after one and two PIPAC procedures, respectively. A total of 8 patients underwent two PIPAC procedures, with improvement of median PCI and peritoneal regression grade score from 15 to 12 and 2.5 to 2.0, respectively.

Conclusions: The recommended phase II dose is 120 mg/m2. Future studies should further delineate the efficacy and role of PIPAC oxaliplatin for peritoneal metastases.See related commentary by de Jong et al., p. 1830.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aerosols
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxaliplatin / administration & dosage*
  • Oxaliplatin / adverse effects
  • Pancreatitis / chemically induced
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary*
  • Prospective Studies


  • Aerosols
  • Oxaliplatin