The Optimal Dosing Regimen for Tranexamic Acid in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial

J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 Nov 4;102(21):1883-1890. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00010.


Background: The purpose of this multicenter, randomized trial was to determine the optimal dosing regimen of tranexamic acid (TXA) to minimize perioperative blood loss in revision total hip arthroplasty.

Methods: Six centers prospectively randomized 175 patients to 1 of 4 regimens: (1) 1-g intravenous (IV) TXA prior to incision (the single-dose IV group), (2) 1-g IV TXA prior to incision followed by 1-g IV TXA after arthrotomy wound closure (the double-dose IV group), (3) a combination of 1-g IV TXA prior to incision and 1-g intraoperative topical TXA (the combined IV and topical group), or (4) 3 doses totaling 1,950-mg oral TXA (the multidose oral group). Randomization was based on revision subgroups to ensure equivalent group distribution. An a priori power analysis (α = 0.05; β = 0.80) determined that 40 patients per group were required to identify a >1-g/dL difference in postoperative hemoglobin reduction between groups. Per-protocol analysis involved an analysis of variance, Fisher exact tests, and two 1-sided t tests for equivalence. Demographic and surgical variables were equivalent between groups.

Results: No significant differences were found between TXA regimens when evaluating reduction in hemoglobin (3.4 g/dL for the single-dose IV group, 3.6 g/dL for the double-dose IV group, 3.5 g/dL for the combined IV and topical group, and 3.4 g/dL for the multidose oral group; p = 0.95), calculated blood loss (p = 0.90), or transfusion rates (14% for the single-dose IV group, 18% for the double-dose IV group, 17% for the combined group, and 17% for the multidose oral group; p = 0.96). Equivalence testing revealed that all possible pairings were statistically equivalent, assuming a >1-g/dL difference in hemoglobin reduction as clinically relevant. There was 1 venous thromboembolism, with no differences found between groups (p = 1.00).

Conclusions: All 4 TXA groups tested had equivalent blood-sparing properties in the setting of revision total hip arthroplasty, with a single venous thromboembolism reported in this high-risk population. Based on the equivalence between groups, surgeons should utilize whichever of the 4 investigated regimens is best suited for their practice and hospital setting. Given the transfusion rate in revision total hip arthroplasty despite TXA utilization, further work is required in this area.

Level of evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antifibrinolytic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antifibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / adverse effects
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / methods*
  • Blood Loss, Surgical / prevention & control*
  • Blood Transfusion / statistics & numerical data
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reoperation / adverse effects
  • Reoperation / methods*
  • Tranexamic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Tranexamic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antifibrinolytic Agents
  • Tranexamic Acid