The Answer to "When to Clip" After Colorectal Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Based on a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Am J Gastroenterol. 2021 Feb 1;116(2):311-318. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000943.


Introduction: Delayed bleeding (DB) is the most common major complication of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Two randomized clinical trials recently demonstrated that clip closure after EMR of large nonpedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs) reduces the risk of DB. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of this prophylactic measure.

Methods: EMRs of LNCPCPs were consecutively registered in the ongoing prospective multicenter database of the Spanish EMR Group from May 2013 until July 2017. Patients were classified according to the Spanish Endoscopy Society EMR group (GSEED-RE2) DB risk score. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed for both Spanish and US economic contexts. The average incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) thresholds were set at 54,000 € or $100,000 per quality-adjusted life year, respectively.

Results: We registered 2,263 EMRs in 2,130 patients. Applying their respective DB relative risk reductions after clip closure (51% and 59%), the DB rate decreased from 4.5% to 2.2% in the total cohort and from 13.7% to 5.7% in the high risk of the DB GSEED-RE2 subgroup. The ICERs for the universal clipping strategy in Spain and the United States, 469,706 € and $1,258,641, respectively, were not cost effective. By contrast, selective clipping in the high-risk of DB GSEED-RE2 subgroup was cost saving, with a negative ICER of -2,194 € in the Spanish context and cost effective with an ICER of $87,796 in the United States.

Discussion: Clip closure after EMR of large colorectal lesions is cost effective in patients with a high risk of bleeding. The GSEED-RE2 DB risk score may be a useful tool to identify that high-risk population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Colonoscopy / economics
  • Colonoscopy / methods
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Endoscopic Mucosal Resection / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polyps / pathology
  • Polyps / surgery*
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage / economics
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage / prevention & control*
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage / therapy
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Spain
  • Surgical Instruments / economics*
  • Tumor Burden
  • Wound Closure Techniques / economics*