Multiple Endocrine Deficiencies are Common in Hypoparathyroidism-Retardation-Dysmorphism Syndrome

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 23;106(2):e907-e916. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa807.


Context: The rare hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism (HRD) syndrome (OMIM #241410) is caused by the mutated tubulin chaperone E (TBCE) gene. This gene encodes a critical protein in the microtubule assembly pathway.

Objective: To evaluate the endocrine profile of patients with HRD.

Methods: The study used a retrospective analysis of a large cohort of patients in a single university medical center. Sixty-three patients were diagnosed with HRD during 1990 to 2019; 58 of them had an endocrine evaluation.

Main outcome measures: We investigated somatic growth parameters, the prevalence of hypoglycemia, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and cortisol deficiency.

Results: All patients were born small for gestational age, and severe growth retardation was found in all patients with mean height standard deviation score (SDS) of -8.8 (range: -5.1 to -15.1) and weight SDS -18 (range: -5.1 to -61.2). Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations were very low among the 21 studied patients: -2.32 SDS (range: -0.6 to -2.7). Four out of 14 (28%) investigated patients had growth hormone deficiency, and 55% of patients were hospitalized due to symptomatic hypoglycemia. Adrenal glucocorticoid insufficiency was diagnosed in 22% of those tested. Hypothyroidism was found in 36% of patients. Both hypogonadotrophic and hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism were observed. The main magnetic resonance imaging findings were small anterior pituitary gland, small hippocampus, brain atrophy, thin corpus callosum, Chiari type I malformation, and septo-optic dysplasia.

Conclusion: Multiple endocrine abnormalities are common in patients with HRD syndrome. Periodic screening of thyroid and adrenal functions is recommended.

Keywords: cortisol; growth; hypogonadism; hypoparathyroidism; hypothyroidism.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / epidemiology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / etiology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / pathology*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Endocrine System Diseases / epidemiology
  • Endocrine System Diseases / etiology
  • Endocrine System Diseases / pathology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Growth Disorders / complications*
  • Humans
  • Hypoparathyroidism / complications*
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intellectual Disability / complications*
  • Israel / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Osteochondrodysplasias / complications*
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Seizures / complications*
  • Young Adult

Supplementary concepts

  • Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome