Phenylpropanoids, common natural compounds, possess many different biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral. Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) can cause a high mortality in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). However, there are currently no licenced drugs that effectively cure this disease. In this study, we designed and synthesized a phenylpropanoid derivative 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromeno[4,3-d]pyrimidine-2,5(1 H)-dione (E2), and explored the antiviral effect against SVCV in vitro and in vivo. Up to 25 mg/L of E2 significantly inhibited the expression levels of SVCV protein genes in the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line by a maximum inhibitory rate of >90%. As expected, E2 remarkably declined the apoptotic of SVCV-infected cells and suppressed potential enhancement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), these data implied that E2 could protect mitochondria from structural damage in response to SVCV. Meanwhile, E2 was added to EPC cells under four different conditions: time-of-addition, time-of-removal, pre-treatment of viruses and pre-treatment of cells indicated that E2 may block the post-entry transport process of the virus. Additionally, the up-regulation of six interferon (IFN)-related genes also demonstrated that E2 indirectly activated IFNs for the clearance of SVCV in common carp. Drug cure effect showed that treatment with E2 at 0.5 d post infection (dpi) is more effective than at 0, 1 or 2 dpi. Most importantly, intraperitoneal therapy of E2 markedly improved common carp survival rate and reduced virus copies in body. Therefore, the E2 has potential to be developed into a novel anti-SVCV agent.
Keywords: Antiviral; Common carp; Cure effect; Phenylpropanoid derivative; SVCV.
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